§2.2.1: The summary of types of audio devices is given on the equipment page. See also UCL's recording page. While 44,100 Hz is a good standard for audio archiving, most people create working copies of their files which have a lower sampling rate (usually 22,050 Hz). It's possible to resample files in batches using Praat, Sound Forge or another audio program.
§2.2.4: Microphones [see also equipment]
I don't recommend radio microphones at this point, although they are tempting, because they make it easier to record while walking around. However, the recording quality is variable. The times I have used such microphones, I have had a lot of interference and static on the recordings.
I have used lapel microphones on my most recent trips and they had both advantages and disadvantages. It was possible to reduce wind noise by having the speaker sit with their back to the wind; their body shields the microphone to some extent. However, it is hard to position the mics because of the type of clothing everyone was wearing. Also, one of the clips was a bit loose and there was no way of tightening it. Clipping the mics to my equipment bag produced reasonable (if slightly soft) recordings when there was no wind. Sticking them inside the equipment bag produced reasonably good recordings of manikay (songs). Clipping them to an empty box (or on one occasion, to a hymnal sitting on a harpsicord) produced pretty good results.
§2.6 The equipment setup checklist is on the checklists page.
§2.7: Here are some suggestions for further reading:
- Phonetic Data Analysis (Peter Ladefoged)
- A Course in Phonetics (Peter Ladefoged)
- Vowels and Consonants (Peter Ladefoged)
- Describing Morphosyntax (Thomas Payne)
- Best practice for recording:
- Bartek Pycha, including his recommendations for field linguists.
- Bill Poser's audio lecture notes.
- Solar power